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International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment
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"International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment"

2022, Vol. 4, Issue 2, Part B

Water quality in upper and middle stretches of river Ganga, India in relation to varying anthropogenic pressures


Author(s): Prerna Sharma and Anubha Kaushik

Abstract: River Ganga, one of the most important rivers of India, has been facing various types and magnitudes of anthropogenic stress along its course of run through the thickly populated river basin. The present investigation has been conducted for three seasons, for the year 2017-2018 for the upper and middle Ganga basins. The analysis has been performed to examine the variations in the concentrations of diverse water and sediment quality parameters from Devprayag to Haridwar, Bithoor to Kanpur, and Varanasi areas, respectively. The sampling locations have been chosen based on the distinct anthropogenic strains a site encounters. Temperature. pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total coliform (TC), Faecal coliform (FC), Hardness, Total Alkalinity (TA), Nitrate, Phosphate and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) were examined for water using the standard methods of APHA, whereas the parameters evaluated for sediment examination contained Nitrate, Phosphate, TKN and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The parameter values of DO, BOD, TDS, and TC corresponded with the highest permissible limits specified for the surface water by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Most Upper Ganga basin sites were found in the Water Quality Class A regarding nearly all the parameters, except UG-01 and UG-02, where Class C was found concerning coliforms. UG-05 and UG-06 came under water quality class C and E, respectively, considering DO. In the middle Ganga stretch one, in terms of TDS, all spots were categorized into Class A and, for coliforms, were in Class C, whereas in terms of DO, it delivered an inconsistent trend. Likewise, in the middle Ganga basin two, in terms of TDS, all sites were classified into Class A, whereas DO show a fickle trend. The BOD and TC values transcended all the permissible limits, so they were not indexed into any class. A correlation matrix was established between the various variables. Strong positive correlations were seen between FC-Phosphate, Hardness-TDS, TA-TDS, TA-Temperature, TC-pH, and Phosphate-pH. In contrast, considerable negative correlations were noticed between DO-Temperature, DO-pH, and BOD-DO. The water quality was unacceptable for consuming and cleansing at nearly all locations as the maximum acceptable limitations were surpassed, showcasing the consequences of elevated human actions at all the sites.

DOI: 10.22271/27067483.2022.v4.i2b.138

Pages: 169-181 | Views: 501 | Downloads: 263

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International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment
How to cite this article:
Prerna Sharma, Anubha Kaushik. Water quality in upper and middle stretches of river Ganga, India in relation to varying anthropogenic pressures. Int J Geogr Geol Environ 2022;4(2):169-181. DOI: 10.22271/27067483.2022.v4.i2b.138
International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment

International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment

International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment
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