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International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment
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"International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment"

2023, Vol. 5, Issue 1, Part B

Geotechnical evaluation of Injana formation clays used in the manufacture of kilns: Kirkuk/northern Iraq


Author(s): Amera Omer Muhammed, Aomed Ahmed Mohammed and Torhan Muthher Hasan

Abstract:
The present study aimed to evaluate the geotechnical properties of Injana Formation clays in the Laylan-Kirkuk area for kiln (oven) manufacturing. Five samples were collected from the study area to conduct various geotechnical tests, represented by petrophysical and chemical analyses. The studied samples revealed the clay and silt (fines) ranged between (89% - 95%), while the sand was around (5%) from the total volume of samples, therefore it's classified as (CL; Inorganic clays or low to medium plasticity, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays), according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). On the other side the Atterberg limits test revealed that the plasticity index ranged between (10.6 to 16.82) is low- medium according to Casagrande plasticity chart. This range of plasticity index is due to the high amount of clay and silt contents. The mentioned condition is preferable for molding the mixture to get the required shape in the kilns manufacturing. The chemical analysis for the studied samples (gypsum, organic matter contents, calcium carbonate percentage, and pH) appeared an exceptionally low gypsum and organic matter contents, and thus does not affect the engineering properties, therefore it is considered to have a very high calcium carbonate content, and it is alkaline neutral. These clays are used by the local population in the manufacture of kilns, and due to the lack of international standards and because it is a local industry, we suggest that these tests be considered as international standards.


Pages: 105-110 | Views: 388 | Downloads: 153

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International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment
How to cite this article:
Amera Omer Muhammed, Aomed Ahmed Mohammed, Torhan Muthher Hasan. Geotechnical evaluation of Injana formation clays used in the manufacture of kilns: Kirkuk/northern Iraq. Int J Geogr Geol Environ 2023;5(1):105-110.
International Journal of Geography, Geology and Environment